Any device that include a computer but not itself a general purpose computer (the comp that we use at our home) is included in the field of embedded system. Thay are special purpose computer systems to perform one or few dedicated functions, often realtime. They are usually embedded as a part of a complete device including hardware,mechanical parts.

Range of ES is from digital cameras,watches mp3 players,traffic lights,factory controllers,system controlling nuclear plants,mobile phones ,consumer electronics : ovens,dish washers ,tv , home automation systems,medical equipment,transportation systems miniature wireless devices called motes..... the list goes on

Traditionally most of this systems are used for control and process measurement, as a side-effect of higher integration of integrated circuits more complex applications can be solved by embedded systems.

Early applications of embedded devices include the guidance computer of the Minuteman I missiles and the Apollo guidance computer. The Minuteman I & II missiles are intercontinental ballistic nuclear warheads, produced by Boeing in the 1960’s. Due to the large quantities of ICs used in the guidance system of Minuteman II missiles, prices for ICs fell from 1000$ each to 3$ each. This lead to wide adoption of embedded systems in consumerelectronics in the 1980’s.

Higher integration of integrated circuits more complex applications can be mapped as Hardware Evolution , various verticals where

Embedded systems has evolved are:

  1. application specific processors
  2. digital signalling processors
  3. general ppurpose microprocessors and microcontrollers
  4. system on chip(soc)

Embedded systems has multiple objectives ans design goals like

  • affodablity
  • reliablity
  • performance
  • energy efficiency.....

Embedded systems is a area of work that incorporate multiple disciplines like

  • electronic hardware
  • software
  • control algorithm

there are various functional as well as non-functional requirements that the system must fulfill in order to be a succesfull product


As integrated circuits get continuously cheaper, more capable and power efficient, complexity of chip designs are constantly growing. This is illustrated by new design approaches such as SoC and multi-core technologies. To handle this increased complexity, existing tools offer functionality for various level of simulation and basic capabilities for synthesizing design given as formal descriptions.

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