This Epistemology of Therapeutic Gymnastics is dedicated to the study of attributes and the validity of knowledge. It deals with the definition of knowledge and related concepts, sources, criteria, types of knowledge as possible and the degree to which each is true, and the relationship between the knower and the known object. As a philosophy of science, is able to assess the methodological approaches, methods and correspondence with the theories, failures and errors in scientific work. It covers trends and mediators in the history of science. According to Nunez (1999), science is seen as essentially moot (fallible, relative, and contextually variable) based on which are built consensus influenced by empirical arguments / theorists, but also interest and professional bias. It is regarded as a social activity, engaged in the production, transfer, dissemination, distribution and application of knowledge. As a social activity, is a product of history and a process that occurs over time and space and involving human actors?


Reflect on technology means that this category is analyzed in its complex relationship with society, a relationship that is based on understanding the influences of man over nature, in view of rationality, values and interests, which are subject to some social determinism, but in turn directly influences the social organization, the distribution of power and has great impact on lifestyles and interpersonal relationships, covering knowledge, skills and ideology. In other words, the technology must also be viewed as a social process, a practice that integrates psychological, social, economic, political, cultural, always influenced by values and interests of its partner system. A look at contemporary science's approach allows us to realize that each day will have the same practical objectives that affect technology development and with this innovation. Also notable is increasingly technological support that is taking much of the research. We are facing a complex science and technology system. The new science is in essence, technological.


In short, the science and technology are social processes in several important ways. Social present not "stage" but as a decision-making, is to start walking in the right direction. It helps to understand social "science in context", which here points to the web of economic, political and cultural which give meaning and guidance to a particular scientific practice. Science is to create, innovate and above all implement, achieve results, generalize its implementation, transfer knowledge and technology, because it itself is a necessity and a heritage of humanity.


From the philosophy of technology to the sociological theories of technology, the philosophy of technology emerged later than the philosophy of science, perhaps because, as he says Medina (1995), in our culture has been a theoretical prejudice that has led to disqualification epistemological techniques against the primacy of the theory. Broadly we can distinguish two opposite approaches: the one who drinks from the analytic tradition and the humanistic criticism. The first is worthy Bunge who focused on the study of rationality and the method of technology that are derived from scientific rationality. For Bunge, the technology is merely applied science, and translating the material form of knowledge and rational action that exists. Hence follow that both science and technology are morally neutral, and only have to regret the bad uses of both by outside interests to those of such rationality. However, much of the humanist philosophy of technology  has conducted a cultural critique of our technological age, appealing to a mobilizing society and even metaphysics to prevent "human values" are drowned in the road. As might be expected from developments in sociology of science, was extending a logical analysis of the technologies.


Until now, most work has focused on conducting studies and in attempting to develop concepts and theoretical formulations that account and try to explain the complexity that arises from specific studies. It is generally considered three basic approaches: SCOSTA Program (Social construction of science and technology), theory of the network of actors, and the history of socio-technical systems. SCOSTA program led by Trevor and Bijker uses the methodology of the school epor Bath. For constructivist schools of technology, technological change is contingent, and to account for it avoids explanations in terms of internal logic. Also what are social and economic such as technology, emerging heterogeneous? Social relationships are formed and shaped by economic and technical. There is no plan that will ultimately lead the historical change (either in terms of technological, economic or social). The technologies are born of conflict, difference or resistance between developers and affected. Such differences may or may not open conflicts or disagreements. The case studies SCOSTA program analyzes the strategies employed by different social actors in such disagreements, which are assumed to strategies designed to improve their position on opponents. Both the strategies and their consequences (which shall include the technologies themselves) should be treated as an emergent phenomenon.


For the theory of the Network of Actors, by Latour and Callon, innovation processes are understood as a struggle between different actors try to impose their definition of the problem is resolved. The concept of "actor" includes equally to human and nonhuman actors (tools, machines, designs, institutions, etc.) And can no longer sustain the dichotomy between social actors and objects, between humans and nonhumans, but that we must speak of networks of close relations between all these groups. Studies of socio-technical systems have attempted to apply systems theory to the history of technology. There is great interest in revealing the mutual interactions between technology and society, beyond discussions on alleged determinism of one kind or another. Thomas Hughes for these interactions give rise to new technologies that alter the social relations, but also make new social factors appear why certain actors can in turn configure the technologies to protect their interests.


Hence our theme, we made an epistemological analysis of Gymnastics Therapeutics, which is the use of therapeutic exercise for the treatment of various diseases, which aims to improve the quality of life of patients as expressed in the prevention and rehabilitation of various diseases and contribute to human development and strengthening of community service. The underlying sciences are Anatomy, Physiology, Morphology, Biochemistry, and Elements of the Medical Clinic. Also involved Pedagogy, Psychology and the Theory and Methodology of Physical Activity. Among the main requirements of the Planning Sessions Therapeutic Treatment of Gymnastics, there are, the selection and proper management of physical exercise and the individual nature of the implementation of a plan. It used various methods of rehabilitation, including highlights, Medical Assistance, Counseling and the Therapeutic Gymnastics.  The key indicators for physical exercises, covers various aspects such as the use of physical activity in almost all processes, taking into account age, stage, and acuity of illness, to thus determine the treatment which leads, taking into account the control of patient outcome and associated diseases you might have.


The main contraindications for physical exercises, directed at acute febrile states, health state is severe, malignant tumors, severe pain, bleeding and the Suspicion of acute (asthma attack, high blood pressure, etc.).


Aspects to take into account in consideration for the application of physical exercises

  • 1 - It should be a good mix of account charges.
  • 2 - Gradual and progressive increase in charges.
  • 3 - Time of suffering from the disease.
  • 4 - Drug Treatment using.
  • 5 - Time it takes no physical activity.
  • 6 - Application of functional tests.
  • 7 - Application of laboratory tests.
  • 8 - Measuring blood pressure and heart rate (before, during and after completion of physical effort). Determining the resting pulse and heart rate training.
  • 9 - The treatment must be individual.
  • 10 - Application of educational test.
  • 11 - The existence of a multidisciplinary team.
  • 12 - Combination of therapeutic methods for various diseases.
  • 13 - Attention to associated diseases.


Effects and Benefits of Exercise


  • Increased oxygen consumption.
  • Increased local blood flow.
  • Improves and strengthens the joint structures.
  • Stroke volume is increased blood.
  • Are decreasing and normalization of blood pressure in hypertensive patients.
  • Normalization is achieved heart rate.
  • Decreased stress and emotional disturbance.
  • Enhance self-confidence, mood and zest for life.
  • Decrease triglycerides.
  • Improved glucose tolerance.
  • It strikes a good functioning of all body systems.
  • It contributes to the elimination or reduction of harmful habits, such as (alcoholism, smoking, etc.).


There are currently over 35 Therapeutic Gymnastics programs for the treatment of various diseases and conditions, with practical application and success in rehabilitation and recovery of lost functions, among which Cardiovascular Diseases and Hypertension, Disease arterial and venous circulatory, bronchial asthma and respiratory diseases, hemiplegia, paraplegia, diabetes Mellitus and Obesity and metabolic diseases, orthopedics, Epilepsy, Arthritis and Arthritis, Osteoporosis, and polyneuritis Epidemic neuropathy, motor disorders, Spine Problems, Problems feet and knees. There are also therapeutic for specialty care Conduct Disorder, Hyperactivity Disorder and Shyness, Treatment for addictions, Alcoholism, Smoking and Drug Addiction. Personality Disorders, Stress and Anxiety, Depression and other emotional disorders. Diseases such as Cerebral Palsy, Down’s Syndrome.


Disabled People have different possibilities of therapeutic care, with emphasis on physical exercises. The Structure of a Fitness Center or Therapeutic Area, allows Local Physiatrist, an Area and Therapeutic Physical Exercise for Health Maintenance, Massage Area, Area of Physiotherapy. Area and Therapeutic Physical Exercise for Health Maintenance provides services Physical Exercises Western and Eastern Asia, such as style Taiji (Taichi), Taiji Qigong and Yoga. Area Massage, Massage serves Aesthetic, Therapeutic, Sports, Shiatsu and Sports General, Therapeutic Shiatsu and Acupressure Technique or acupressure. The Area of Physiotherapy, provides various services, such as infrared heat, diathermy or dynamic Current, Laser, Ultrasound, Magnet Therapy, Acupuncture, among others.


Multidisciplinary team or group:


  1. Specialist in General Medicine.
  2. Specialist in Psychology.
  3. Medical Physiatrist.
  4. Physiotherapy Technician.
  5. Licensed and Therapeutic Physical Education Specialist.


Phases of treatment


1. Comprehensive Diagnosis of the patient.

2. Guidance of therapy.

3. Control and Evaluation of treatment.


There are four basic principles for health and we must take into account, such as dietary habits that promote health, lifestyle and alcohol-free snuff, the regular or systematic physical exercises and psychosocial support Wide. This work is important the contribution of Therapeutic Gymnastics Human Development, which is defined by UNESCO, as the process of enlarging people's passions and expressed level of welfare achieved regardless of the level of development achieved in three essential options are: To live a long and healthy life, acquire knowledge and have access to the resources needed to achieve a decent standard of living. Among the values that complement these options are, the opportunities for a creative, productive life and the enjoyment of self-respect.


Indicators Of Physical Activity And Quality Of Life


  1. Increased life expectancy.
  2. Decreased years of onset and duration of chronic noncommunicable diseases and extending the life of people.
  3. Percent of population with chronic non-communicable diseases including Therapeutic Rehabilitation Programs.
  4. Increasing levels of growth, development and physical efficiency of the population by age group, sex and residential areas.
  5. Percent of population in preschool and school age who receive physical education program.
  6. Institutional
  7. Extracurricular
  8. Individual
  9. Number of faculty specializing by inhabitants.
  10. Percent of services with Physical Education Teachers of students in the education system.
  11. Percent of total enrollment receiving compulsory physical education and duration in years or grades of the same within the education system.
  12. Percentage of time within the curricula and the school weekly schedule is devoted to physical activity per student.
  13. Percent non-school population is considered:
  14. Systematic practicing physical activity (three frequencies per week).
  15. Occasional participant (no systematic but practical).
  16. Stadiums Assistance, Skills, or follow events on television.


It is important to treat various diseases, but we give priority to the Prevention of Health, for which there are several programs geared to these ends, most notably, attention to pregnant women, special attention to child the period of infancy and preschool education for health, mass vaccination campaign, attention to hypertension, AIDS Prevention, the primary psychological care, care for the elders of the Third and Fourth Age, the realization Plans against a sedentary lifestyle, obesity, smoking and alcoholism, as well as programs of physical activity and health. The PE teachers can develop physical activity programs and Community Health, aimed at providing services in the Grandparents Circle, Musical Aerobic Gymnastics, gymnastics with Infants, Gymnastics with the child, with Pregnant Gymnastics, Groups preparation Adult Physical and walking groups, jogging and running. To provide greatest scientist in this important field, which is the Therapeutic Gymnastics, methodological guidance is for the Control and Evaluation of recovery treatment and rehabilitation of health, among which are the Pedagogical Test Application, Implementation of various Therapeutic Gymnastics programs, taking into account the duration of treatment, compliance with the principle of gradual and progressive increase of charges, as well as compliance with the principle of accessibility and individualization. Other guidelines are directed to a combination of therapeutic methods for various diseases, attention to associated diseases, to give personalized attention, given drug treatment and are performed using measurements of blood pressure and heart rate in patients before of physical exercises. The Therapeutic Gymnastics is directed at patient satisfaction, taking into account the useful employment of leisure time, encouraging the rehabilitation and health maintenance, providing short, medium and long term, increased quality of life people.


  • Epistemological investigations clarify the scope of remedial gymnastics and therefore constitutes a working tool for teachers of therapeutic areas and Physical Education.


  • The systematic dissemination through various mass media, increased knowledge of the Therapeutic Gymnastics, its causes, consequences and treatment in the general population.


  • Advances in science and technology provide a solid foundation in the effective and efficient rehabilitation of various diseases.


  • The integration of activities and therapeutic techniques and group work or multidisciplinary team, including solid aspects that contribute to achieving effective and efficient results in treating various diseases.


  • The link school and / or Health Center - Family - Community is very important for achieving positive results in the rehabilitation of various diseases.

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