Some important terms which often occur in civics are maintained below:-

1) Democracy: The word Democracy is derived the Greek words Demos and Kratos. It means in democracy the supreme power or sovereignty rests with the people. Free Dom, equality, fraternity justice are its essential features.

2) Fundamental rights: The rights that are absolutely necessary for human beings to live and prosper well in a society are called fundamental rights. They are given to all citizens irrespective of their caste, creed, religion, sex and economic status.

3) Fundamental duties: The responsibilities that are to be discharged by every citizen towards other citizens, group and state are called duties.

4) Socialism: Socialism is a system in which the means of production are owned controlled by the society and used for social welfare. It firmly believes that each one should get according to his need not ability.

5) Secularism: Secularism is a thought free from religion influence. The word `secular’ means a thought that does not have religious concern.

6) Nationalism: The feeling of oneness among the people of a country expressing loyalty to the state is called nationalism. The feelings of `my country’ and `my people’ are essential elements of nationalism.

7) Religious fanaticism: excessive love for one’s own religion and hatred for others religion may be called religious fanaticism.

8) Regionalism: Giving more importance to regional interests at the expense of national interests may be called regionalism.

9) Casteism: Excessive love for one’s own caste and looking down upon the people of other castes may be called casteism.

10) Foreign policy: A policy formulated to safeguard the national interests and to establish social, economic, political and other relationships with other countries is called a foreign policy.

11) Peaceful- co-existence: The peaceful living together of different countries with diverse policies knows peaceful co-existence. It includes mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty, non – aggression, non – interference, equality and mutual benefit.

12) Monarchy: A system of government in which a monarch or king holds all powers over his domains is called monarchy.

13) Republic: A country having an elected head of the state is called a republic.

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