All the changes leading to the formation of seeding from the embryo of a seed are collect called germination. A fresh seed taken from a plant normally dose not sport, though it is kept under suitable conditions required for germination. The seed must pass through a period of dormancy. During this period, it undergoes physiological maturation.


Take three beakers. Mark them I, II and III. Place bits of newspaper or cotton in the beakers. Place a few seeds of Bengal gram in each beaker. Moisten the beaker I sufficiently so that the seeds get enough water and air. Pour water in the beaker II so that seeds in it are fully immersed. Do not add any water to the beaker III. Now keep all the three beakers on a window sill so that they get sunlight and air. Observe the seeds in the beakers for 2 or 3 days. Note down the changes at an interval of fur six hours.

The seeds germinate in beaker I. it is so, because the seeds are provided with required quantity of water. They also get necessary air and warmth. The seeds in beaker II do not germinate because they are completely immersed in water and do not get required air and warmth. The seeds in beaker III also do not germinate because they are not provided with water.


Take a flower pot. Fill it with garden soil. Sow a few seeds of green gram, beans and mustard. Water them regularly. Observe them after a week. Observe the growth of the seedlings. All of them do not grow in the same manner thought the conditions are the same for all the seeds. This may be due to difference among the seeds.

Farmers sow the seeds of wheat, peas etc., directly in the soil. But the seedlings of paddy, brinjal etc., are grown in special nursery beds before they are transplanted in the fields. The process of taking out young plants or seedling from nursery beds to a field with requires spacing, water minerals for adequate growth is called transplantation. Soon after the young seedling grows in the fields, farmers remove the unwanted plants called weeds that grow along with the crop plans.

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