1. The north-south lines are known as meridians of longitude and extend from the North Pole to the South Pole. All meridians are halves of great circles.
  2. The east-west lines (circles) are known as parallels of latitude.
  3. All parallels of latitudes are not parts of the great circle. Only one latitude, the equator is a great circle.
  4. Relative location specifies a particular position or place relating it to another known position or place.
  5. Absolute location indicates position based on the co-ordinates of a grid system (such as latitude and longitude).
  6. Latitude also accounts for temperature differences on the surface of the earth. The latitude of a place provides a good idea about its climate and vegetation.
  7. Longitude causes time to differ at different places on the earth.
  8. Latitude is the angular distance of a place north or south of the equator.
  9. Usually distance is measured in kilometers or miles but Angular distance is measured and expressed in degrees.

10.  Latitude of a place tells us about the climate of the place in general terms, and the related vegetation and animal life.

11.  Latitude along with longitude enables us to find the exact location of places on the earth.

Points to Note :

  1. Each parallel of latitude is a circle.
  2. All the parallels of latitude are not of equal length.
  3. The circles become smaller towards the pole.
  4. The Equator at 0o is the most important latitude and the largest circle that can be drawn on the globe.
  5. It divides the earth into the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere.
  6. The distance between any two parallels of latitude is always equal.
  7. The North Pole and the South Pole are fixed points and serve as basic points of reference.
  8. The zenith distance is the angle that the Sun makes at noon with the zenith (the point in the sky which is vertically above the observer). This can be obtained with the help of instruments.

Declination of the Sun:

This is the angle that the Sun makes north or south of the Equator on a particular day.


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